THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF NOISE ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
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The Congress included among the requirements of the Noise Control Act of 1972 a directive that the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency "...develop and publish criteria with respect to noise..." and then "publish information on the levels of environmental noise the attainment and maintenance of which in defined areas under various conditions are requisite to protect the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety."
Not all of the scientific work that is required for basing such levels of environmental noise on precise objective factors has been completed. Some investigations are currently underway, and the need for others has been identified. These involve both special studies on various aspects of effects of noise on humans and the accumulation of additional epidemiological data. In some cases, a considerable period of time must elapse before the results will be meaningful, due to the long-term nature of the investigations involved. Nonetheless, there is information available from which extrapolations are possible and about which reasoned judgments can be made.
Given the foregoing, EPA has sought to provide information on the levels of noise requisite to protect public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety. The information presented is based on analyses, extrapolations and evaluations of the present state of scientific knowledge. This approach is not unusual or different from that used for other environmental stressors and pollutants. As pointed out in "Air Quality Criteria"-Staff Report, Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution, Committee on Public Works, U-S. Senate, July, 1968,
The protection of public health is required action based upon best evidence of causation available. Sir E. B. Hill, 1962 appropriately expressed this philosophy, when he wrote: "All scientific work is incomplete-whether it be observational or experimental. All scientific work is liable to be upset or modified by advancing knowledge. That does not confer upon us freedom to lower the knowledge we already have, or to postpone the action that it appears to demand at a given time. The lessons of the past in general health and safety practices are easy to read. They are characterized by empirical decisions, by eternally persistent reappraisal of public health standards against available knowledge of causation, by consistently giving the public the benefit of the doubt, and by ever striving for improved environmental quality with the accompanying reduction in disease morbidity and mortality. The day of precise quantitative
measurement of health and welfare effects has not yet arrived. Until such measurement is possible, action must be based upon limited knowledge, guided by the principal of the enhancement of the quality of human life. Such action is based on a philosophy of preventive medicine."
The foregoing represents the approach taken by EPA in the preparation of this present document on noise. As the fund of knowledge is expanded, improved and refined, revisions of this document will occur.
The incorporation of a margin of safety in the identification of non-hazardous levels is not new. In most cases, a statistical determination is made of the lowest level at which harmful effects could occur, and then an additional correction is applied as a margin of safety. In the case of noise, the margin of safety has been developed through the application of a conservative approach at each stage of the data analysis. The cumulation of these results thus provides for the adequate margin of safety.
It should be borne in mind that this document is published to present information required by the Noise Control Act, Section 5(a)(2), and that its contents do not constitute Agency regulations or standards. Its statistical generalizations should not be applied to a particular individual. Moreover, States and localities will approach this information according to their individual needs and situations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|2. ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE EXPOSURE||10|
|3. RATIONALE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE REQUISITE TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE||17|
|BASIS FOR IDENTIFYING LEVELS||17|
|IDENTIFICATION OF MAXIMUM EXPOSURE LEVELS TO AVOID SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE EFFECTS||18|
|Explanation of Identified Level for Hearing Loss||18|
|Adequate Margin of Safety||20|
|Identified Levels of Interference||21|
|Adequate Margin of Safety||22|
|MAXIMUM EXPOSURE TO SPECIAL NOISES||24|
|Non-Audible Effects of Impulsive Sound||27|
|4. IDENTIFIED LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IN DEFINED AREAS||28|
|USE OF IDENTIFIED ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE LEVELS||31|
|EQUIVALENT SOUND LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER NOISE MEASURES||A-1|
|LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IN THE U.S. AND TYPICAL EXPOSURE PATTERS OF INDIVIDUALS||B-1|
|NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS||C-1|
|NOISE INTERFERENCE WITH HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND RESULTING OVERALL ANNOYANCE/HEALTH EFFECTS||D-1|
|GENERAL EFFECTS OF NOISE NOT DIRECTLY USED IN IDENTIFYING LEVELS OF NOISE REQUISITE TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE||E-1|
|EPA'S RESPONSIBILITY TO IDENTIFY SAFE LEVELS FOR OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE||F-1|
|IMPULSE NOISE AND OTHER SPECIAL NOISES||G-1|
|AAOO||American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology|
|AFR||Air Force Regulation|
|AMA||American Medical Association|
|ANSI||American National Standards Institute (formerly USASI)|
|ASHA||American Speech and Hearing Association|
|CHABA||Committee on Hearing and Bio-Acoustics|
|dBA||A-weighted decibel (decibels). Also written dB(A).|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|IEC||International Electrotechnical Commission|
|ISO||Intentional Organization for Standardization|
|NIOSH||National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health|
|NIPTS||Noise-Induced Permanent Threshold Shift|
|NITTS||Noise-Induced Temporary Threshold Shift|
|NPL||Noise Pollution Level (also National Physical Laboratory in England)|
|OSHA||Occupational Safety and Health Act|
|RMS||Root Mean Square|
|SIL||Speech Interference Level|
|SPL||Sound Pressure Level|
|TTS||Temporary Threshold Shift|
|TTS2||TTS determined 2 minutes after cessation of exposure|
|L(t)||Time-varying noise level|
|LA||A-weighted sound level|
|Lb||"Background" or "residual" sound level, A-weighted|
Daytime equivalent A-weighted sound level between the hours of 0700 and 2200
|Le||Sound exposure level-the level of sound accumulated during a given event.|
|Ldn||Day-night average sound level-the 24 hour A-weighted equivalent sound level, with a 10 decibel penalty applied to nighttime levels|
|Leq||Equivalent A-weighted sound level over a given time interval|
|Leq(8)||Equivalent A-weighted sound level over eight hours|
|Leq(24)||Equivalent A-weighted sound level over 24 hours|
|Lh||Hourly equivalent A-weighted sound level|
Nighttime equivalent A-weighted sound level between the hours of 2200 and 0700
Maximum A-weighted sound level for a given time interval or event
|Lx||X-percent sound level, the A-weighted sound level equaled or exceeded x% of time|
The Noise Control Act of 1972 established by statutory mandate a national policy "to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their public health and welfare". The Act provides for a division of powers between the Federal and state and local governments, in which the primary Federal responsibility is for noise source emission control, with the states and other political subdivisions retaining rights and authorities for primary responsibility to control the use of noise sources and the levels of noise to be permitted in their environment.
In order to provide adequately for the Federal emission control requirement and to insure Federal assistance and guidance to the state and localities, the Congress has established two separate but related requirements with regard to scientific information about health and welfare effects of noise. First, the Environmental Protection Agency was called upon to publish descriptive data on the effect of noise which might be expected from various levels and exposure situations. Such "criteria" statements are typical of other environmental regulatory schemes. Secondly, the Agency is required to publish "information" as to the levels of noise "requisite to protect the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety".
The first requirement was completed in July, 1973, when the document "Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise" was published. The present document represents the second step. Much of the scientific material on which this document is based was drawn from the earlier "criteria document", while additional material was gathered from scientific publications and other sources, both from the U.S. and abroad. In addition, two review meetings were held which were attended by representatives of the Federal agencies as well as distinguished members of the professional community and representatives from industrial and environmental associations. The reviewers' suggestions, both oral and written, have received thoughtful attention, and their comments incorporated to the extent feasible and appropriate.
After a great deal of analysis and deliberation, levels were identified to protect public health and welfare for a large number of situations. These levels are subject to the
definitions and qualifications contained in the Foreword. They are summarized in Table I according to the public health and welfare effect to be protected against, the requisite sound level, and the areas which are appropriate for such protection.
In order to identify these levels, a number of considerations and hypotheses were necessary, which are listed below with reference to the appropriate appendices where they are discussed in detail.
1. In order to describe the effects of environmental noise in a simple, uniform and appropriate way, the best descriptors are the long-term equivalent A-weighted sound level (Leq) and a variation with a nighttime weighting, the day-night sound level (Ldn) (see Appendix A).
2. To protect against hearing impairment (see Appendix C):
b. Changes in hearing level of less than 5 dB are generally not considered noticeable or significant.
c. One cannot be damaged by sounds considered normally audible, which one cannot hear.
d. Protecting the population up to a critical percentile (ranked according to decreasing ability to hear) will also protect those above that percentile, (in view of consideration 2c above) thereby protecting virtually the entire population.
b. The TTS Hypothesis
b. Of the various kinds of activity interference, speech interference is the one that is most readily quantifiable.
SUMMARY OF NOISE LEVELS IDENTIFIED AS REQUISITE TO PROTECT
PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE WITH AN ADEQUATE MARGIN OF SAFETY
(see Table 4 for a detailed description)
|Hearing Loss||Leq(24) = < 70 dB||All areas|
|Outdoor activity interference and annoyance||Ldn = < 55 dB||Outdoors in residential areas and farms and other outdoor areas where people spend widely varying amounts of time and other places in which quiet is a basis for use|
|Leq(24) = < 55 dB||Outdoor areas where people spend limited amounts of time, such as school yards, playgrounds, etc.|
|Indoor activity interference and annoyance||Ldn = < 45 dB||Indoor residential areas|
|Leq(24) = < 45 dB||Other indoor areas with human activities such as schools, etc.|
Explanation of Table 1:
1. Detailed discussions of the terms Ldn and Leq appear later in the document. Briefly, Leq(24) represents the sound energy averaged over a 24-hour period while Ldn represents the Leq with a 10 dB nighttime weighting.
2. The hearing loss level identified here represents annual averages of the daily level over a period of forty years. (These are energy averages, not to be confused with arithmetic averages.)
3. Relationship of an Leq(24) of 70 dB to higher exposure levels.
EPA has determined that for purposes of hearing conservation alone, a level which is protective of that segment of the population at or below the 96th percentile will protect virtually the entire population. This level has been calculated to be an Leq of 70 dB over a 24-hour day.
Given this quantity, it is possible to calculate levels which, when averaged over given durations shorter than 24 hours, result in equivalent amounts of energy. For example, the energy contained in an 8-hour exposure to 75 dB is equivalent to the energy contained in a 24-hour exposure to 70 dB. For practical purposes, the former exposure is only equivalent to the latter when the average level of the remaining 16 hours per day is negligible (I.e., no more than about 60 dB* for this case).
Since 8 hours is the typical daily work period, an Leq(8) of
75 is considered an appropriate level for this particular duration. In
addition, the 24-hour exposure level was derived from data on 8-hour daily
exposures over a 40-year working life. In planning community noise
abatement activities, local governments should bear in mind the special
needs of those residents who experience levels higher than
Leq(8) at 70 on their jobs.
These levels are not to be construed as standards as they do not take into account cost or feasibility. Nor should they be thought of as discrete numbers, since they are described in terms of energy equivalents. As specified in this document, it is EPA's judgment that the maintenance of levels of environmental noise at or below those specified above are requisite to protect the public from adverse health and welfare effects. Thus, as an individual moves from a relatively quiet home, through the transportation cycle, to a somewhat noisier occupational situation, and then back home again, his hearing will not be impaired if the daily equivalent of sound energy in his environment is no more than 70 decibels. Likewise, undue interference with activity and annoyance will not occur if outdoor levels are maintained at an energy equivalent of 55 dB and indoor levels at 45 dB. However, it is always assumed throughout that environmental levels will fluctuate, even though the identified energy equivalent is not exceeded. Likewise, human exposure to noise will vary during the day, even though the daily "dose" may correspond well to the identified levels.
Before progressing further, it would be helpful to differentiate between the terms "levels", "exposure" and "dose". As used in this document, the word "level" refers to the magnitude of sound in its physical dimension, whether or not there are humans present to hear it. "Exposure" is used to mean those sound levels which are transmitted to the human ear, and "dose" is the summed exposure over a period of time.
* This is not to imply that 60 dB is a negligible exposure level in terms of health and welfare considerations, but rather that levels of 60 dB make a negligible contribution to the energy average of Leq = 70 dB when an 8-hour exposure of 75 dB is included.
Pursuant to Section 5(a)(1), EPA developed and published on July 27, 1973, criteria reflecting:
...the scientific knowledge most useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on the public health or welfare which may be expected from differing quantities and qualities of noise.
Under Section 5(a)(1), EPA was required to provide scientific data that, in its judgement, was most appropriate to characterize noise effects.
The present "levels information" document is required by Section 5(a)(2), which calls for EPA to publish,
...information on the levels of environmental noise the attainment and maintenance of which in defined areas under various conditions are requisite to protect the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety.
The present document, and its approach to identifying noise levels based on cumulative noise exposure is in response to the expressed intent of the Congress that the Agency develop such a methodology. The EPA Report to the President and Congress, under Title IV, PL 91-604, contained considerable material on the various schemes for measuring and -evaluating community noise response, and it contained a recommendation that the Federal government should make an assessment of the large number of varying systems, with a goal of "standardization, simplification, and interchangeability of data".
The need for such action was the subject of considerable Congressional interest in the hearings on the various noise control bills, which finally resulted in enactment of the Noise Control Act of 1972. The concept underlying this present document can be better appreciated from the following pertinent elements of the legislative history of the Act.
In the course of the hearings before the Subcommittee on Public Health and Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives ("Noise Control" HR Serial 92-30), the subject of the relation of physical noise measurements to human response was given considerable attention. The Committee, in reporting the bill (House of Representatives Report No. 92-842, Noise Control Act of 1972), stated the following on this matter:
The Committee notes that most of the information relating to noise exposures was concerned with specific sources, rather than typical
cumulative exposures to which urban and suburban dwellers are commonly exposed. There is a need for much greater effort to determine the magnitude and extent of such exposures and the Committee expects the EPA to promote studies on this subject and consider development of methods of uniform measurement of the impact of noise on communities.
The Committee went on in the Report to assign responsibility to the Administrator to coordinate all Federal noise programs, with a specific expression of concern over the "different systems of noise measurement" in use by the various Agencies. The following is especially important with respect to the purposes of this document:
The Committee gave some consideration to the establishment of a Federal ambient noise standard, but rejected the concept. Establishment of a Federal ambient standard would in effect put the Federal Government in the position of establishing land use zoning requirements on the basis of noise. . . It is the Committee's view that this function is one more properly of the states and their political subdivisions, and that the Federal Government should provide guidance and leadership in undertaking that effort.
The need for EPA action on this subject under the legislative authority of the Act was presented in Agency testimony before the Subcommittee on Air and Water Pollution, Committee on Public Works, U. S. Senate. The following portion is important (Noise Pollution Serial 92-H35 U. S. Senate):
A variety of specialized schemes have been evolved over the past years to quantify the relationship between these various conditions and their effects on humans. . . . Suffice it to say that no simplistic single number system can adequately provide for a uniform acceptable national ambient noise level value. This, however, does not preclude the undertaking of a noise abatement strategy involving the proper use of the available scientific data on the part of the Federal Government in conjunction with the state and local governments. . . . The complex nature of the considerations we have outlined above in our judgment require that the Federal Government undertake to provide the necessary information upon which to base judgments. . . .
Taking both the specific language of the Act, cited above, and the legislative history discussed in the foregoing, EPA interprets Section 5(a)(2) as directing the Agency to identify levels based only on health and welfare effects and not on technical feasibility or economic costs
Throughout this report, the words "identified level" are used to express the result of the inquiry mandated by Section 5(a)(2). The words "goals", "standards", or "recommended levels" are not used since they are not appropriate. Neither Congress nor the Environmental Protection Agency has reached the conclusion that these identified levels should be adopted by states and localities. This is a decision which the Noise Control Act clearly leaves to the states and localities themselves.
Certain of the statutory phrases in Section 5(a)(2) need further definition and discussion in order to make clear the purpose of this document. Congress required that EPA "publish information on environmental noise" levels. This mandate is basically one of "description". Such description is to be made in the specific context of "defined areas" and "under various conditions". The phrase "in defined areas under various conditions" is used in both a geographical and an activity sense, for example, indoors in a school classroom or outdoors adjacent to an urban freeway. It also requires consideration not only of the human activity involved, but also of the nature of the noise impact.
The next and last statutory phrase in Section 5(a)(2) is most important. It is that the noise levels are to be discussed on the basis of what is requisite to protect "the public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety". The use of the words "public health" requires a statistical approach to determine the order of magnitude of the population affected by a given level of noise. The concept of a margin of safety implies that every sector of the population which would reasonably be exposed to adverse noise levels should be included by the specifically described levels.
The phrase "health and welfare" as used herein is defined as "complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity". This definition would take into account sub-clinical and subjective responses (e.g., annoyance or other adverse psychological reactions) of the individual and the public. As will be discussed below, the available data demonstrate that the most serious clinical health and welfare effect caused
by noise is interference with the ability to hear. Thus, as used in this document, the phrase "health and welfare" will necessarily apply to those levels of noise that have been shown to interfere with the ability to hear.
The phrase "health and welfare" also includes personal comfort and well-being and the absence of mental anguish and annoyance.. In fact, a considerable portion of the data available on the "health and welfare" effects of noise is expressed in terms of annoyance. However, "annoyance" is a description of the human reaction to what is described as noise "interference"; and though annoyance appears to be statistically quantifiable, it is a subjective reaction to interference with some desired human activity. From a legal standpoint, annoyance per se is not a legal concept. Annoyance expresses the human response or results, not its cause. For this reason, the common law has never recognized annoyance as being a
compensable injury, in the absence of interference with a personal or property right. Of the many community surveys on noise which have been conducted, speech interference emerges as the most tangible component of annoyance, whereas sleep and other kinds of activity interference are important, but less well-defined contributors. Thus, although it is important to understand the importance of annoyance as a concept, it is the actual interference with activity on which the levels identified in this document are based.
There was a great deal of concern during the preparation of this document that the levels identified would be mistakenly interpreted as Federal noise standards. The information contained in this document should not be so interpreted. The general purpose of this document is rather to discuss environmental noise levels requisite for the protection of public health and welfare without consideration of those elements necessary to an actual
rule-making Those elements not considered in this document include economic and technological feasibility and attitudes about the desirability of undertaking an activity which produces interference effects. Instead, the levels identified here will provide State and local governments as well as the Federal Government and the private sector with an informational point of departure for the purpose of decision-making.
An even more important, but related point must be kept in mind when this document is read. The data on which the informational levels in this document are based are not "short run" or single event noises. Rather, they represent energy equivalent noise levels over a long period. For example, the exposure period which results in no more than 5 dB hearing loss at the identified level in Tables 1 and 4 is a period of forty years.
The definition of "environmental noise" is provided in Section 3(11) of the Noise Control Act of 1972. "The term 'environmental noise' means the intensity, duration, and the character of sounds from all sources." As discussed earlier, it is the intent of Congress that a simple, uniform measure of noise be developed. Not all information contained in the noise environment can be easily considered and analyzed. Instead, for practical purposes, it needs to be condensed to result in one indicator of the environmental quantity and quality of noise, which correlates with the overall long-term effects of noise on public health and welfare.
Many noise rating and evaluation procedures are available in the literature,2,3 in voluntary national and international standards, and in commonly used engineering practices (see Appendix A). These methods and practices are well established, and it is not the purpose of this document to list them, elaborate on them, or imply a restriction of their use. Instead, the purpose is to discuss levels of environmental noise using a measure which correlates with other measures and can be applied to most situations. Based on the concept of the cumulative human exposure to environmental noise associated with the various life styles of the population, maximum long-term exposures for individuals and the corresponding environmental noise levels at various places can be identified. It is important to keep in mind that
the selected indicator of environment noise does not correlate uniquely with any specific effect on human health or performance. Admittedly, there are uncertainties with respect to effects in individual cases and situations. Such effects cannot be completely accounted for; thus, the necessity to employ a statistical approach.
Section 2 of the report addresses the details of characterizing and measuring human exposure to environmental noise. The equivalent sound level (Leq) and a variation weighted for nighttime exposure (Ldn) has been selected as the uniform descriptor. The relationship of Leq and Ldn to other measures in use is analyzed in Appendix A. Section 2 and Appendix B further detail the various human exposure patterns and give simplified examples of individual exposure patterns. The problem of separating occupational exposure from the balance of environmental exposure and the statutory responsibility for controlling occupational exposure is analyzed in Appendix F.
In Section 3, cause and effect relationships are summarized and presented as the basis and justification for the environmental noise levels identified in Section 4. Specifically, Section 3 develops conclusions with regard to levels at which hearing impairment and activity interference take place. These are discussed in terms of situational variation and the respective appropriateness of Leq and Ldn. The factors providing for an adequate margin of safety and special types of noises are discussed. This section makes reference to material in Appendices C (on hearing loss), D (annoyance and activity interference) and G (special noises), which in turn rely upon material presented in EPA's document, Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise,2 to which the reader is referred for more detailed information.
Section 4 discusses the levels of environmental noise requisite to protect public health and welfare for various indoor and outdoor areas in the public and private domain in terms of Leq and Ldn. The summary table is supplemented by short explanations.
It is obvious that the practical application of the levels to the various purposes outlined earlier requires considerations of factors not discussed here. Although some guidance in this respect is included in Section 4, not all problems can be anticipated and some of these questions can only be resolved as the information contained in this report is considered and applied. Such practical experiences combined with results of further research will guide EPA in revising and updating the levels identified. In this regard, it should be recognized that certain of the levels herein might well be subject to revision when additional data are developed.
ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE EXPOSURE
A complete physical description of a sound must describe its magnitude, its frequency spectrum, and the variations of both of these parameters in time. However, one must choose between the ultimate refinement in measurement techniques and a practical approach that is no more complicated than necessary to predict the impact of noise on people. The Environmental Protection Agency's choice for the measurement of environmental noise is based on the following considerations:
These considerations, when coupled with the physical attributes of sound that influence human response, lead EPA to the conclusion that the magnitude of sound is of most importance insofar as cumulative noise effects are concerned. Long-term average sound level, henceforth referred to as equivalent sound level (Leq), is considered the best measure for the magnitude of environmental noise to fulfill the above seven requirements. Several versions of equivalent sound level will be used for identifying levels of sound in
specific places requisite to protect public health and welfare. These versions differ from each other primarily in the time intervals over which the sound levels are of interest, and the correction factor employed.
Equivalent A-weighted sound level is the constant sound level that, in a given situation and time period, conveys the same sound energy as the actual time-varying A-weighted sound.* The basic unit of equivalent sound levels is the decibel (see Appendix A), and the symbol for equivalent sound level is Leq. Two sounds, one of which contains twice as much energy but lasts only half as long as the other, would be characterized by the same equivalent sound level; so would a sound with four times the energy lasting one fourth as long. The relation is often called the equal-energy rule. A more complete discussion of the computation of equivalent sound level, its evolution and application to environmental noise problems, and its relationship to other measures used to characterize environmental noise is provided in Appendix A.
The following caution is called to the attention of those who may prescribe levels: It should be noted that the use of equivalent sound level in measuring environmental noise will not directly exclude the existence of very high noise levels of short duration. For example, an equivalent sound level of 60 dB over a twenty-four hour day would permit sound levels of 1 10 dB but would limit them to less than one-second duration in the twenty-four hour period. Comparable relationships between maximum sound levels and their permissible durations can easily be obtained for any combination, relative to any equivalent sound level (see the charts provided in Appendix A).
Three basic situations are used in this document for the purpose of identifying levels of environmental noise:
*See Glossary for a detailed definition of terms. Note that when the term "sound level" is used throughout this document, it always implies the use of the A-weighting for frequency.
Three versions of equivalent sound level are used in this document in order to accommodate the various modes of noise exposure that occur in these situations. They are distinguished by the periods of time over which they are averaged and the way in which the averaging is done.
In determining the daily measure of environmental noise, it is important to account for the difference in response of people in residential areas to noises that occur during sleeping hours as compared to waking hours. -During nighttime, exterior background ' noises generally drop in level from daytime values. Further, the activity of most households decreases at night, lowering the internally generated noise levels. Thus, noise events become more intrusive at night, since the increase in noise levels of the event over background noise is greater than it is during the daytime.
Methods for accounting for these differences between daytime and nighttime exposures have been developed in a number of different noise assessment methods employed around the world, (see Appendix A). In general, the method used is to characterize nighttime noise as more severe than corresponding daytime events; that is, to apply a weighting factor to noise that increases the numbers commensurate with their severity. Two approaches to identifying time periods have been employed: one divides the 24-hour day into two periods, the waking and sleeping hours, while the other divides the 24 hours into three periods--day, evening, and night. The weighting applied to the non-daytime periods differs slightly among the different countries, but most of them weight nighttime activities by about 10 dB. The evening weighting, if used, is 5 dB.
An examination of the numerical values obtained by using two periods versus three periods per day shows that for any reasonable distribution of environmental noise levels, the two-period day and the three-period day are essentially identical; i.e., the 24-hour equivalent sound levels are equal within a few tenths of a decibel. Therefore, the simpler two-period day is used in this document, with daytime extending from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. and nighttime extending from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. The symbol for the 15-hour daytime equivalent sound level is Ld, the symbol for the 9-hour nighttime equivalent sound level is Ln, and the day-night weighted measure is symbolized as Ldn.
The Ldn is defined as the A-weighted average sound level in decibels (re 20 micropascals) during a 24-hour period with a 10 dB weighting applied to nighttime sound levels. Examples of the outdoor present day (1973) day-night noise level at typical locations are given in Figure 1.
3. Leq for the 24-hour average sound level to which an individual is exposed (Leq (24)): This situation is related to the cumulative noise exposure experienced by an individual irrespective of where, or under what situation, this exposure is received. The long-term health and welfare effects of noise on an individual are related to the cumulative noise exposure he receives over a lifetime.
Relatively little is known concerning the total effect of such lifetime exposures, but dose-effect relations have been studied for two selected situations:
a. The average long-term exposure to noise primarily in residential areas leading to annoyance reactions and complaints.
b. The long-term effects of occupational noise on hearing, with the daily exposure dose based on an eight-hour workday.
An ideal approach to identifying environmental noise levels in terms of their effect on public health and welfare would be to start by identifying the maximum noise not to be exceeded by individuals. However, the noise dose that an individual receives is a function of lifestyle. For example, exposure patterns of office workers, factory workers, housewives, and school children are quite different. Within each group the exposures will vary widely as a function of the working, recreational, and sleeping patterns of the individual. Thus, two individuals working in the same office will probably accumulate different total noise doses if they use different modes of transportation, live in different areas, and have different TV habits. Examples of these variations in noise dose for several typical life styles are provided in Appendix B. However, detailed statistical information on the distribution of actual noise doses and the relationship of these doses to long-term health and welfare effects is still missing. Therefore, a realistic approach to this problem is to identify appropriate noise levels for
Figure 1. Outdoor Day-Night Sound Level in dB (re 20 micropascals) at Various Locations.4
places occupied by people as a function of the activity in which they are engaged, including a gross estimate of typical average exposure times.
From a practical viewpoint, it is necessary to utilize the wealth of data relating to occupational noise exposure, some of it, albeit, subject to interpretation, in order to arrive at extrapolations upon which the identification of safe levels for daily (24-hour) exposures can be based.
in the following sections of this report, the various modes of exposure to noise and the human responses elicited will be discussed, leading to the identification of appropriate noise exposure levels. In order to assist the reader in associating these levels with numerical values of noise for familiar situations, typical noise levels encountered at various locations are listed in Table 2. For further assistance, Figure 2 provides an estimate of outdoor noise levels for different residential areas.
EQUIVALENT SOUND LEVELS IN DECIBELS NORMALLY OCCURRING INSIDE VARIOUS PLACES 6
|Small Store (1-5 clerks)||60|
|Large Store (more than 5 clerks)||65|
|Small Office (1-2 desks)||58|
|Medium Office (3-10 desks)||63|
|Large Office (more than 10 desks)||67|
Typical movement of people-no TV or radio
Speech at 10 feet, normal voice
TV listening at 10 feet, no other activity
(+) These measurements were taken over durations typical of the operation of these facilities.
Figure 2. Estimates of outdoor noise.
RATIONALE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE
REQUISITE TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
BASIS FOR IDENTIFYING LEVELS
For the identification of levels to protect against the direct, disease-producing effects of noise, protection against hearing loss is the guiding consideration. At this time, there is insufficient scientific evidence that non-auditory diseases are caused by noise levels lower than those that cause noise-induced hearing loss. In the event that future research renders this conclusion invalid, this document will be revised accordingly (see Appendix E). in addition to direct disease-producing health effects, interference by noise with various human activities, such as speech-perception, sleep, and thought can lead to annoyance and indirect effects on well-being. All of these direct and indirect effects are considered here as effects on public health and welfare. It is important to note, however, the distinction between voluntary and involuntary exposures. Exposures to high levels of environmental noise are often produced or sought by the individual. For example, voluntary exposures to loud music are common. Consequently, the concept of total individual noise dose with regard to annoyance, must be applied only to involuntary exposure, although, of course, this argument does not apply to the effects of noise on hearing.
A further consideration is the physical setting in which the exposure takes place. Although there are no data to justify the assumption, it is judged here that, whereas a small amount of speech interference in most outdoor places is not detrimental to public health and welfare, the same is not true for most indoor environments. Based on this reasoning, adequate protection of the public against involuntary exposure to environmental noise requires special consideration of physical setting and the communication needs associated with each.
In the next subsection, the above rationale is applied to identify the maximum noise level consistent with an adequate margin of safety for the general classes of sound found most often in the environment. Certain special classes of sound, such as infrasound, ultrasound, and impulsive sounds are discussed in the final subsection.
IDENTIFICATION OF MAXIMUM EXPOSURE LEVELS TO AVOID SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE EFFECTS
The following considerations have been applied in identifying the environmental noise levels requisite to protect the hearing of the general population. For detailed derivation, justification and references, (see Appendix C).
Explanation of Identified Level for Hearing Loss
Taking into account the assumptions and considerations mentioned above, the 8-hour exposure level, which protects virtually the entire population from greater than 5 dB NIPTS is 73 dB, (see Figure 3). Before this value of 73 dB for 8-hour exposures can be applied to the environmental situation, however, certain correction or conversion factors must be considered. These correction factors are:
Figure 3. Percentage of exposed population that will incur no more than 5 dB NIPTS shown as a function of exposure level. Population ranked by decreasing ability to hear at 4000 Hz. (See Appendix C for rationale).
1. Intermittency: allows the exposure level to be 5 dB higher. This correction factor is required because most environmental noise is intermittent (not at a steady level, but below 65 dBA more than 10% of any one-hour period) and intermittent noise has been shown less damaging than continuous noise of the same Leq. This correction should normally be applied except in situations that do not meet this criterion for intermittency.
2. Correction to yearly dose (250 to 365 days): requires reduction of the exposure level by 1.6 dB. All data used as the basis of Figure 3 come from occupational exposures which are only 250 days per year, whereas, this document must consider all 365 days in a year.
3. Correction to twenty-four hour day: the identified level of 73 dB is based on 8-hour daily exposures. Conversion to a 24-hour period using the equal-energy rule requires reduction of this level by 5 dB. This means that continuous sounds of a 24-hour duration must be 5 dB less intense than higher level sounds of only 8 hours duration, with the remaining 16 hours considered quiet.
Using the above corrections and conversions implies that the average 8-hour daily dose (based on a yearly average and assuming intermittent noise) should be no greater
than Leq(8) = 73+5-1.6 = 76.4 dB. Extending the duration to 24 hours would yield a value of 71.4 dB. For continuous noise, this value would be 66.4 dB. However, since environmental noise is intermittent, this level is below that which is considered necessary to protect public health and welfare. In view of possible statistical errors in the basic data, it is considered reasonable, especially with respect to a margin of safety, to round down from 71.4 dB to 70 dB. Therefore, the level of intermittent noise identified here for purposes of protection against hearing loss is:
Leq(24) = 70 dB
(For explanation of the relationship between exposures of Leq(8) = 75 dB and Leq(24) = 70 dB, please see page 4.)
Adequate Margin of Safety
Section 5(a)(2), as stated previously, requires an adequate margin of safety. The level identified to protect against hearing loss, is based on three margins of safety considerations
1. The level protects at the frequency where the ear is most sensitive (4,000 Hz).
2. It protects virtually the whole population from exceeding 5 dB NIPTS.
3. It rounds off in the direction of hearing conservation (downward) to provide in part for uncertainties in analyzing the data.
The levels of environmental noise which interfere with human activity (see Appendix D for detailed dicussion) depend upon the activity and its contextual frame of reference; I.e., they depend upon "defined areas under various conditions". The effect of activity interference is often described in terms of annoyance. However, various non-level related factors, such as attitude towards the noise source and local conditions, may influence an individual's reaction to activity interferences.
The levels which interfere with listening to a desired sound, such as speech or music, can be defined in terms of the level of interfering sound required to mask the desired sound. Such levels have been quantified for speech communication by directly measuring the interference with speech intelligibility as a function of the level of the intruding sound, relative to the level of the speech sounds.
The levels interfering with human activities which do not involve active listening have not been as well quantified relative to the level of a desired sound. These relationships are more complicated because interference caused by an intruding sound depends upon the background level and the state of the human auditor; e.g., the degree of concentration when endeavoring to accomplish a mental task, or the depth of sleep, etc. Fortunately, there is a wealth of survey data on community reaction to environmental noise which, although subject to some shortcomings when taken alone, can be used to supplement activity interference data to identify noise levels requisite to protect public health and welfare. Thus, the levels identified here primarily reflect results of research on community reaction and speech masking.
Identified Levels for Interference
The level identified for the protection of speech communication is an Leq of 45 dB within the home in order to provide for 100% intelligibility of speech sounds. Allowing for the 15 dB reduction in sound level between outdoors and indoors (which is an average amount of sound attenuation that assumes partly-open windows), this level becomes an outdoor Leq of 60 dB for residential areas. For outdoor voice communication, the outdoor Leq of 60 dB allows normal conversation at distances up to 2 meters with 95% sentence intelligibility.
Although speech-interference has been identified as the primary interference of noise with human activities and is one of the primary reasons for adverse community reactions to noise and long-term annoyance, the 10 dB nighttime weighting (and, hence, the term Ldn) is applied to give adequate weight to all of the other adverse effects on activity interference. For the same reason, a 5 dB margin of safety/ is applied to the identified outdoor level. Therefore, the outdoor Ldn identified for residential areas is 5 5 dB. (See Appendix E for relationship of Leq to Ldn.)
The associated interior day-night sound level within a typical home which results from outdoors is 15 dB less, or 40 dB due to the attenuation of the structure. The expected indoor daytime level for a typical neighborhood which has an outdoor Ldn of 55 dB is approximately 40 dB, whereas the nighttime level is approximately 32 dB (see Figure A-7). This latter value is consistent with the limited available sleep criteria D-5. Additionally,
these indoor levels of 40 dB during the day and approximately 32 dB at night are consistent with the background levels inside the home which have been recommended by acoustical consultants as acceptable for many years, (see Table D-10).
The effects associated with an outdoor day-night sound level of 55 dB are summarized in Table 3. The summary shows that satisfactory outdoor average sentence intelligibility may be expected for normal voice conversations over distances of up to 3.5 meters; that depending on attitude and other non-level related factors, the average expected community reaction is none, although 1% may complain and 17% indicate "highly annoyed" when responding to social survey questions; and that noise is the least important factor governing attitude towards the area.
Identification of a level which is 5 dB higher than the 55 dB identified above would significantly increase the severity of the average community reaction, as well as the expected percentage of complaints and annoyance. Conversely, identification of a level 5 dB lower than the 55 dB identified above would reduce the indoor levels resulting from outdoor noise well below the typical background indoors (see Table 3) and probably make little change in annoyance since at levels below the identified level, individual attitude and life style, as well as local conditions, seem to be more important factors in controlling the resulting magnitude of annoyance or community reaction than is the absolute magnitude of the level of the intruding noise.
Accordingly, Ldn of 45 dB indoors and of 55 dB outdoors in residential areas are identified as the maximum levels below which no effects on public health and welfare occur due to interference with speech or other activity. These levels would also protect the vast majority of the population under most conditions against annoyance, in the absence of intrusive noises with particularly aversive content.
Adequate Margin of Safety
The outdoor environmental noise level identified in Table 3 provides a 5 dB margin of safety with respect to protecting speech communication. This is considered desirable for the indoor situation to provide for homes with less than average noise reduction or for persons speaking with less than average voice level. A higher margin of safety would be ineffective most of the time due to normal indoor activity background levels.
The 5 dB margin of safety is particularly desirable to protect the population against long-term annoyance with a higher probability than would be provided by the levels protecting indoor and outdoor speech communication capability alone. The 5 dB margin clearly shifts community response as well as subjective annoyance rating into the next lower
SUMMARY OF HUMAN EFFECTS IN TERMS OF SPEECH COMMUNICATION, COMMUNITY REACTIONS,
ANNOYANCE AND ATTITUDE TOWARD AREA ASSOCIATED WITH AN OUTDOOR DAY/NIGHT SOUND
LEVEL OF 55 dB re 20 MICROPASCALS
|TYPE OF EFFECT||MAGNITUDE OF EFFECT|
|Speech - Indoors||100% sentence intelligibility (average) with a 5 dB margin of safety|
|Speech - Outdoors||100% sentence intelligibility (average) at 0.35 meters|
|99% sentence intelligibility (average) at 1.0 meters|
|95% sentence intelligibility (average) at 3.5 meters|
|Average Community Reaction||None evident; 7 dB below level of significant "complaints and threats of legal action" and at least 16 dB below "vigorous action" (attitudes and other non-level related factors may affect this result)|
|Complaints||1% dependent on attitude and other non-level related factors|
|Annoyance||1% dependent on attitude and other non-level related factors|
|Attitudes Towards Area||Noise essentially the least important of various factors|
(Derived from Appendix D)
response category than would be observed for the maximum level identified with respect to speech communication alone. According to present data, this margin of safety protects the vast majority of the population against long-term annoyance by noise. It would reduce environmental noise to a level where it is least important among environmental factors that influence the population's attitude toward the environment. To define an environment that eliminates any potential annoyance by noise occasionally to some part of the population appears not possible at the present state of knowledge.
MAXIMUM EXPOSURES TO SPECIAL NOISES
The following sounds may occur occasionally but are rarely found at levels high enough to warrant consideration in most environments, which the public occupies. For a more detailed discussion, see Appendix G.
Frequencies below 16 Hz are referred to as infrasonic frequencies and are not audible. Complaints associated with extremely high levels of infrasound can resemble a mild stress reaction and bizarre auditory sensations, such as pulsating and fluttering. Exposure to high levels of infrasound is rare for most individuals. Nevertheless, on the basis of existing data2,7, the threshold of these effects is approximately 120 dB SPL ( I -16 Hz). Since little information exists with respect to duration of exposure and its effects, and also since many of the data are derived from research in which audible frequencies were present in some amount, these results should be interpreted with caution.
Ultrasonic frequencies are those above 20,000 Hz and are also generally inaudible. The effects of exposure to high intensity ultrasound is reported by some to be a general stress response. Exposure to high levels of ultrasound does not occur frequently. The threshold of any effects for ultrasound is 105 dB SPL2. Again, many of these data may include frequencies within the audible range, and results are, therefore, to be interpreted cautiously.
It is difficult to identify a single-number limit requisite to protect against adverse effects from impulse noise because it is essential to take into account the circumstances of exposure, the type of impulse, the effective duration, and the number of daily exposures, (see Appendix G),
Review of temporary threshold shift data leads to the conclusion that the impulse noise limit requisite to prevent more than a 5 dB permanent hearing loss at 4000 Hz after 10 years of daily exposure is a peak sound pressure level (SPL) of 145 dB. This level applies in the case of isolated events, irrespective of the type, duration, or incidence at the ear. However, for duration of 25 microseconds or less, a peak level of 167 dB SPL would produce the same effect, (see Figure 4).
1. Duration Correction: When the duration of the impulse is less than 25 micro-seconds, no correction for duration is necessary. For durations exceeding 25 microseconds, the level should be reduced in accordance with the "modified CHABA limit" shown in Figure 4 and Figure G-I of Appendix G.
2. Correction for Number of Impulses:
(More detailed information is provided in Figure 4.)
Furthermore, if the average interval between repeated impulses is between 1 and 10 seconds, a third correction factor of -5 dB is applied. Thus, to prevent hearing loss due to impulse noise, the identified level is 145 dB SPL, or 167 dB peak SPL for impulses less than 25 microseconds, for one impulse daily. For longer durations or more frequent exposures, the equivalent levels are as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Set of modified CHABA limits for daily exposure to impulse noises having B-duration in the range 25 microseconds to 1 second. (Parameter: number (N) of impulses per daily exposure. Criterion: NIPTS not to exceed 5 dB at 4 kHz in more than 10% people.)(Derived from Appendix G)
Non-Auditory Effects of Impulsive Sound
Impulses exceeding the background noise by more than about 10 dB are potentially startling or sleep-disturbing. If repeated, impulsive noises can be disturbing to some individuals if heard at all (they may be at levels below the average noise levels). However, no threshold level can be identified at this time ; nor is there any clear evidence or documentation of any permanent effect on public health and welfare.
Little or no public annoyance is expected to result from one sonic boom during the daytime below the level of 35.91 pascals (0.75 pounds per square foot) as measured on the ground (see Appendix G). The same low probability of annoyance is expected to occur for more than one boom per day if the peak level of each boom is no greater than:
where N is the number of booms. This value is in agreement with the equal energy concept.
IDENTIFIED LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE IN DEFINED AREAS
Table 4 identifies the levels requisite to protect public health and welfare with an adequate margin of safety for both activity interference and hearing loss. The table classifies the vyrious areas according to the primary activities that are most likely to occur in each. The following is a brief description of each classification and a discussion of the basis for the identified levels in Table 4. For a more detailed discussion of hearing loss and activity interference, see Appendices C and D.
1. Residential areas are areas where human beings live, including apartments, seasonal residences, and mobile homes, as well as year-round residences. A quiet environment is necessary in both urban and rural residential areas in order to prevent activity interference and annoyance, and to permit the hearing mechanism to recuperate if it is exposed to higher levels of noise during other periods of the day.
An indoor Ldn of 45 dB will permit speech communication in the home, while an outdoor Ldn not exceeding 55 dB will permit normal speech communication at approximately three meters. Maintenance of this identified outdoor level will provide an indoor Ldn of approximately 40 dB with windows partly open for ventilation. The nighttime portion of this Ldn will be approximately 32 dB, which should in most cases, protect against sleep interference. An Leq(24) of 70 dB is identified as protecting against damage to hearing.
Although there is a separate category for commercial areas, commercial living accommodations such as hotels, motels, cottages, and inns should be included in the residential category since these are places where people sleep and sometimes spend extended periods of time.
2. Commercial areas include retail and financial service facilities, offices, and miscellaneous commercial services. They do not include warehouses, manufacturing plants, and other industrial facilities, which are included in the industrial classification. Although a level for activity interference has not been identified here (see footnote a), suggestions for such levels will be found in Table D-10 of Appendix D. On the other hand, a level of Leq(24) of 70 dB has been identified to protect against hearing loss.
YEARLY AVERAGE* EQUIVALENT SOUND LEVELS IDENTIFIED AS REQUISITE TO PROTECT
THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE WITH AN ADEQUATE MARGIN OF SAFETY
|Activity Interference||Hearing Loss Consideration||To Protect Against Both Effects (b)||Activity Interference||Hearing Loss Consideration||To Protect Against Both Effects (b)|
|Residential with Outside Space and Farm Residences||Ldn||45||-||45||55||-||55|
|Residential with No Outside Space||Ldn||45||-||45||-||-||-|
|Farm Land and General Unpopulated Land||Leq(24)||-||-||-||(a)||70||70(c)|
a. Since different types of activities appear to be associated with different levels, identification of a maximum level for activity interference may be difficult except in those circumstances where speech communication is a critical activity. (See Figure D-2 for noise levels as a function of distance which allow satisfactory communication.)
b. Based on lowest level.
c. Based only on hearing loss.
d. An Leq(8) of 75 dB may be identified in these situations so long as the exposure over the remaining 16 hours per day is low enough to result in a negligible contribution to the 24-hour average, i.e., no greater than an Leq of 60 dB.
Note: Explanation of identified level for hearing loss: The exposure period which results in hearing loss at the identified level is a period of 40 years.
*Refers to energy rather than arithmetic averages.
3. Transportation facilities are included so as to protect individuals using public and private transportation. Included within this classification are commercial and private transportation vehicles. Identification of a level to protect against hearing loss is the only criterion used at this time, although levels lower than a Leq of 70 dB are often desirable for effective speech communication. However, because of the great variety of conditions inside transportation vehicles, and because of the desirability of speech privacy in certain situations, a level based on activity interference cannot be identified for all modes of transportation at this time.
4. Industrial areas include such facilities as manufacturing plants, warehouses, storage areas, distribution facilities, and mining operations. Only a level for hearing loss is identified due to the lack of data with respect to annoyance and activity interference. Where the noise exposure is intermittent, a Leq(24) of 70 dB is identified as the maximum level for protection of hearing from industrial exposure to intermittent noise. For 8-hour exposures, an Leq(8) of 75 dB is considered appropriate so long as the exposure over the remaining 16 hours per day is low enough to result in a negligible contribution to the 24-hour average.
5. Hospital areas include the immediate neighborhood of the hospital as well as its interior. A quiet environment is required in hospital areas because of the importance of sleep and adequate rest to the recovery of patients. The maintenance of a noise level not exceeding a Ldn of 45 dB in the indoor hospital environment is deemed adequate to prevent activity interference and annoyance. An outdoor Ldn of 55 dB should be adequate to protect patients who spend some time outside, as well as insuring an adequately protective indoor level. A Leq(24) of 70 dB is identified to prevent hearing loss.
6. Educational areas include classrooms, auditoriums, and schools in general, and those grounds not used for athletics. The principal consideration in the education environment is the prevention of interference with activities, particularly speech communication. An indoor noise level not exceeding Leq(24) of 45 dB is identified as adequate to facilitate thought and communication. Since teaching is occasionally conducted outside the classroom, an outdoor Leq(24) of 55 dB is identified as the maximum level to prevent activity interference. To protect against hearing loss a Leq(24) of 70 dB is identified for both indoor and outdoor environments. As in the industrial situation, eight hours is generally the amount of time spent in educational facilities. Therefore an Leq(8) of 75 dB is considered appropriate to protect against hearing loss, so long as the exposure over the remaining 16 hours is low enough to result in a negligible contribution to the 24-hour average.
7. Recreational areas include facilities where noise exposure is voluntary. Included within this classification are nightclubs, theaters, stadiums, racetracks, beaches, amusement parks, and athletic fields. Since sound exposure in such areas is usually voluntary, there is seldom any interference with the desired activity. Consequently, the chief consideration is
the protection of hearing. An Leq(24) of 70 dB is therefore identified for intermittent noise in order to prevent hearing damage.
8. Farm and general unpopulated land primarily includes agricultural property used for the production of crops or livestock. For such areas, the primary considerations are the protection of human hearing and the prevention of adverse effects on domestic and wild animals. Protection of hearing requires that an individual's exposure to intermittent noise does not exceed Leq(24) of 70 dB. A separate level for the exposure of animals is not identified due to the lack of data indicating that hearing damage risk for animals is substantially different from that of humans. The unpopulated areas include wilderness areas, parks, game refuges, and other areas that are set aside to provide enjoyment of the outdoors. Although quiet is not always of paramount importance in such areas, many individuals enjoy the special qualities of serenity and tranquility found in natural areas. At this time it is not possible to identify an appropriate level to prevent activity interference and annoyance. However, when it becomes possible to set such a level, a clear distinction should be made between natural and man-made noise.
USE OF IDENTIFIED ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE LEVELS
One of the purposes of this document is to provide a basis for judgment by states and local governments as a basis for setting standards. In doing so the information contained in this document must be utilized along with other relevant factors. These factors include the balance between costs and benefits associated with setting standards at particular noise levels, the nature of the existing or projected noise problems in any particular area, the local aspirations and the means available to control environmental noise.
In order to bring these factors together, states, local governments and the public will need to evaluate in a systematic manner the following:
1. The magnitude of existing or projected noise environments in defined areas as compared with the various levels identified in this document.
2. The community expectations for noise abatement with respect to existing or projected conditions.
3. The affected elements of the public and the degree of impact of present or projected environmental noise levels.
4. The noise sources not controlled by Federal regulations that cause local noise problems.
5. Methods available to attack environmental noise problems (use limitations, source control through noise emission standards, compatible land use planning, etc.).
6. The costs inherent in reducing noise to certain levels and benefits achieved by doing so.
7. The availability of technology to achieve the desired noise reduction.
The levels of environmental noise identified in this report provide the basis for assessing the effectiveness of any noise abatement program. These noise levels are identified irrespective of the nature of any individual noise source. One of the primary purposes of identifying environmental noise levels is to provide a basis by which noise source emission regulations, human exposure standards, land use planning, zoning, and building codes may be assessed, as to the degree with which they protect the public health and welfare with respect to noise. Such regulatory action must consider technical feasibility and economic reasonableness, the scale of time over which results can be expected, and the specific problems of enforcement. In the process of balancing these conflicting elements, the public health and welfare consequence of any specific decision can be determined by comparing the resultant noise environment against the environmental noise levels identified in this report.
|1.||Noise Control Act of 1972, Public Law
92-574, 92 Congress, HR
11021, October 27, 1972.
|2.||Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise, EPA, July 27, 1973, 550/9-73-002|
|3.||"Report to the President and Congress on Noise," EPA, NRC 500.1, December 31, 1971.|
|4.||"Impact Characterization of Noise Including Implications of Identifying and Achieving Levels of Cumulative Noise Exposure," EPA Report NTID 73.4, 1973.|
|5.||Proceedings of the Conference on Noise as a Public Health Problem, EPA Report 550/9-73-008, 1973.|
|6.||Seacord, D.F., J. Acoustical Society of America, 12:183, 1940.|
|7.||Johnson, D., "Various Aspects of
Infrasound," presented at the Colloquy on Infrasound, Centre
National de la Recherche Scientifique Paris, September 1973.