Editor's note: This brief was submitted to the court July 16, 1993 by:

James E. Ryan
DuPage County State's Attorney
George J. Sotos
Chief, Civil Division
505 North County Farm Road
Wheaton, Illinois 60187
Telephone 708.682.7056


Joseph V. Karaganis
A. Bruce White
Ellen Lois Zisook
Special Assistant State's Attorneys
Karaganis & White Ltd.
414 North Orleans Street, Suite 810
Chicago, Illinois 60610
Telephone 312.836.1177 The brief has been reproduced for display on the Web by the editor of this website, who takes responsibility for any errors in reproduction that may have occurred.





IN THE CIRCUIT COURT FOR THE EIGHTEENTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT DU PAGE COUNTY, WHEATON, ILLINOIS
PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS ) EX REL JAMES E. RYAN, STATE'S ) ATTORNEY OF DUPAGE COUNTY: ) REGIONAL BOARD OF SCHOOL ) TRUSTEES OF DUPAGE COUNTY, ) ILLINOIS; BERARDO J. DESIMONE, ) REGIONAL SUPERINTENDENT OF ) SCHOOLS OF DUPAGE COUNTY, ) ILLINOIS; REGIONAL BOARD OF SCHOOL ) No. 89 MR 0314 TRUSTEES OF DUPAGE COUNTY FOR ) Judge Edward Duncan THE USE AND BENEFIT OF SCHOOL ) DISTRICTS 2, 7, 10, 11, 100, 108, AND 205 IN ) DUPAGE COUNTY, ILLINOIS, AND ) SCHOOL DISTRICTS 2, 7, 10, 11, 100, 108, ) AND 205 IN DUPAGE COUNTY, ILLINOIS ) ) Plaintiffs ) ) v. ) ) THE CITY OF CHICAGO, et al, ) ) Defendants. )
PLAINTIFFS' REPLY BRIEF IN SUPPORT OF THEIR
MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT AND RESPONSE
IN OPPOSITION TO THE CITY OF CHICAGO'S
CROSS-MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES INTRODUCTION (Jump To) A. Structure Of This Brief (Jump to) B. Chicago's Arguments And The Standard For Summary Judgment On Plaintiffs' Motion (Jump to) 1. Chicago's Strategy 2. A Summary Of Plaintiffs' Responses To Chicago's Arguments - Plaintiffs' Response to Chicago's Asserted Factual Issues - Plaintiffs' Response to Chicago's Alleged Legal Deficiencies - Plaintiffs' Response to Chicago's Claimed Affirmative Defense
SECTION ONE The Framework For Airport Proprietor Liability
I. The History And Structure Of The Legal Principle That The Airport Proprietor Is Liable For Noise Injury To Neighboring Properties Caused By Overflights Of Aircraft Approaching Or Departing The Airport (Jump to) A. Griggs v. Allegheny County -- The Airport Proprietor Is Liable For Noise Injury To Neighbors (Jump to) B. Griggs Progeny Declaring Aircraft Noise That Causes Serious Interference With The Use And Enjoyment Of Property A Taking In Violation Of Federal And State Constitutional Just Compensation Requirements (Jump to) C. Takings Issues (Jump to) 1. The Federal Batten Rule -- Noise Injury From Lateral Flights vs. Direct Overflights 2. The Navigational Servitude Issue D. The Recognition Of Other State Law Remedies In Addition To Inverse Condemnation (Jump to) E. The Great Weight Of Scholarly Authority Supports Plaintiffs' Analysis As To Proprietor Liability (Jump to) II. The Preemption Issue -- Burbank Does Not Preempt State Law Damage Remedies Against The Airport Proprietor A. Burbank And Its Progeny -- The Airport Proprietor Has Authority To Control Noise (Jump to) B. Congress Has Not Preempted State Law Damage Remedies For Aircraft Noise (Jump to) 1. Congress' Express Intent In Section 1106 2. The Burbank Decision Never Addressed Either Section 1106 Or State Law Damage Remedies 3. Every Court That Has Examined Section 1106 And Burbank Has Found No Preemption Of State Law Damage Remedies 4. Separating Preemption Issues From Limits On Congressional Power Under the Tenth Amendment
SECTION TWO Plaintiff School Districts' Reply To Chicago's Response To Plaintiffs Motion For Summary Judgment
I. The "Nuisance Balancing Test" Does Not Apply To A Suit For Damages (Jump to) II. Legislative Authorization To Conduct An Activity Does Not Create An Immunity From Nuisance Liability (Jump to) III. Inverse Condemnation Is Not The Exclusive Remedy (Jump to) IV. Plaintiffs Are Entitled To Just Compensation For Chicago's Taking And Damaging Of Property (Jump to) V. The School Districts Are Entitled To Recovery Under The Taking Count A. There Is A Physical Invasion, And The Navigable Airspace Argument Is No Defense (Jump to) B. School Districts Are Entitled To Recovery Of The Cost To Cure The Noise Injury, With No Setoff Of Alleged Benefits (Jump to) VI. There Are No Outstanding Issues Of Material Fact To Be Decided On The Damaging Claim A. Plaintiffs Have Shown The Requisite Special Injury (Jump to) B. Benefits Do Not Offset Plaintiffs' Claims For Taking And Damaging Of Property, Without Compensation (Jump to) 1. The Proper Measure Of Damages Is The Cost To Cure 2. In Measuring Damage To Property, General Benefits Are Not Taken Into Account VII. Chicago's Attempt To Distinguish Plaintiffs' Taking And Damaging Case Law Is Spurious (Jump to) VIII. Plaintiffs' Claims Are Not Barred By Limitations (Jump to) A. The Tort Immunity Act Does Not Apply to Inverse Condemnation Actions For Takings or Damagings (Jump to) B. The Statute of Limitations for a Taking in Illinois is 20 years (Jump to) C. Aircraft Noise Is An Intermittent And Continuing Nuisance (Jump to) D. The Use Of The INM Model Is Irrelevant, Inappropriate, And Inaccurate (Jump to)
[EDITOR'S NOTE: Section Three of the brief
is not republished on this website.]
SECTION THREE Plaintiff School Districts' Response To Chicago's Cross-Motion
I. There Is No Accord And Satisfaction Of Plaintiffs' Claims A. The Elements Of Accord And Satisfaction Are Not Satisfied In This Case, As A Matter Of Law 1. No Meeting Of Minds With An Intent To Compromise 2. No Executed Agreement Raising An Accord And Satisfaction 3. No Bona Fide Dispute 4. Lack Of Consideration B. Cases Cited By Chicago Do Not Hold To The Contrary II. Counts I-III State Valid And Recognized Causes Of Action Under Article X, Section 1 Of The Illinois Constitution -- The Factual Elements Establishing A Right To Recover Are Uncontroverted A. The Causes Of Action Stated In Counts I-III Have Been Recognized By The Illinois Courts B. The Specific Injuries Alleged - Deprivation Of A Right To A Quality Education, Deprivation Of The Right To An Educated Populace, And Interference With The Performance Of A Statutory Duty To Educate -- Are Established By Uncontroverted Evidence C. Foreign Cases Cited By Chicago Are Inapplicable D. A Constitutional Right To High-quality Education Is Borne Out By The Legislative History III. Plaintiffs' Claim In Count III For Wrongful Interference With And Impairment Of The Performance Of Statutory Obligations Does Not Require A Specific Malicious Intent To Interfere IV. Chicago's Preemption Arguments Are Erroneous A. Bryski Was Never Correct And In Light Of Bieneman's Overruling Of Luedtke Need Not Be Followed B. This Court Is Not Bound to Follow Bryski C. Other Illinois Decisions do not support Bryski D. Bieneman Doesn't Bar Relief Here E. State Constitutional Claims Are Not Preempted CONCLUSION
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES CITES
A & H. Lithoprint v. Bernard Dunn Advertising Co., 82 Ill. App. 2d 409, 226 N.E.2d 483 (1st Dist. 1967) Aaron v. City of Los Angeles, 40 Cal. App. 3d 471, 115 Cal. Rptr. 162 (1974) Ackerman v. Port of Seattle 55 Wash. 2d 400, 348 P.2d 664 (1960) Air Transportation Association v. Crotti, 389 F. Supp. 58 (N.D.Cal. 1975) Alaska Airlines v. City of Long Beach, 951 F.2d 977 (9th Cir. 1991) Aldrich v. Metropolitan West Side Elevated R.R. Co., 195 m. 456, 63 N.E. 155 (1902) Alevizos v. Metropolitan Airports Commission of Minneapolis & St Paul, 298 Minn. 471, 216 N.W.2d 651 (1974) Allen v. Maurer, 6 m. App. 3d 633, 286 N.E.2d 135 (4th Dist. 1972) Amoco Oil Co. v. Segall, 111 Ill. App. 3d 1002, 455 N.E.2d 876 (4th Dist. 1983) Arrow Air v. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 602 F. Supp 314 (S.D.N.Y. 1985) Baker v. Burbank-Glendale -Pasadena Airport Authority, 39 Cal.3d 862, 218 Cal. Rptr. 293, 705 P. 2d 886 (1985), cert. denied, 475 U.S. 1017(1986) Baltimore & Potomac R.R. Co. v. Fifth Baptist Church, 108 U.S. 317(1883) Barrington Hills Country Club v. Village of Barrington, 357 Ill. 11, 191 N.E. 239(1934) Battenv v. United States, 306 F. 2d 580 (10th Cir. 1962), cert. denied, 371 U.S. 955 (1963) Belmar Drive-in Theatre v. Illinois State Toll Highway Comm 'n., 34 Ill. 2d 544, 216 N.E.2d 788 (1966) Bevelheimer v. Gierach, 33 Ill. App. 3d 988, 339 N.E.2d 299, ( 1 st Dist. 1975) Biddison v. City of Chicago, 921 F. 2d 724 (7th Cir. 1991) Bienemanv v. City of Chicago, 864 F.2d 463 (7th Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 109 S. Ct. 2099 (1989) Board of Education of Louisville v. Commonwealth of Kentucky, Dept. of Highways, 528 S.W.2d 657 (Ky. 1975) Board of Education v. Redding, 32 111. 2d 567, 207 N.E.2d 427 (1965) Board of Natural Resources of State of Washington v. Brown, 992 F.2d 937 (1993) Bond v. Board of Education, 81 III. 2d 242, 408 N.E.2d 714 (1980) Bracishaw v. Pellican, 152 m. App. 3d 253, 504 N.E.2d 211 (2d Dist. 1987) Brand v. Union Elevated R. Co., 258 Ill.133, 101 N.E. 247 (1913) Branning v. United States, 654 F.2d 88 (Ct. Cl. 1981) British Airways v. Port Authority, 558 F.2d 75, 84 (2d Cir. 1977) British Airways v. Port Authority, 564 F.2d 1002 (2d Cir. 1977) Bryski v. City of Chicago, 148 ifi. App.3d 556, 499 N.E.2d 162 (2nd Dist. 1986) Carroll v. Hurst, 103 Ill. App. 3d 984, 431 N.E.2d 1344 (4th Dist. 1982) Catello v. The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co., 298 Ill.248, 131 N.E. 591(1921) Certified Mechanical Contractors, Inc. v. Wight & Co., Inc., 162 Ill. App. 3d 391, 296 N.E.2d 760 (2d Dist. 1987) Choi v. Messer, 191 Ill. App. 3d 723, 548 N.E.2d 33 (3d Dist. 1989) Citizens Utilities Co. v. Metropolitan Sanitary District, 25 Ill. App. 3d 252, 322 N.E.2d 857 (1st Dist. 1974) City of Atlanta v. Owen, 248 Ga. 299, 282 S.E.2d 906 (1981), cert. denied, 456 U.S. 972(1982) City of Burbank v. Lockheed Air Terminal, Inc., 411 U.S. 624 (1973) City of Carbondale v. Van Natta, 61 ni. 2d 483, 338 N.E.2d 19 (1975) City of Chicago v. Farwell, 286 Ill.415, 121 N.E. 795, (1919) City of Chicago V. George F. Harding Collection, 70 Ill. App. 2d 254, 217 N.E.2d 381 (1st Dist. 1965) City of Chicago v. Reuter Bros. Iron Works, 398 Ill. 202, 75 N.E.2d 355 (1947) City of Evanston v. Regional Transportation Authority, 202 Ill. App. 3d 265, 559 N.E.2d 899 (1st Dist. 1990) City of Highland v. Auer, 235 Ill. App. 327 (4th Dist. 1925) City of Jacksonville v. Schumann, 167 So.2d 95 (Fla. App. 1964), cert. denied, 88 S.Ct. 101 (1968) City of Los Angeles v. Japan Airlines Co. Ltd., 41 Cal. App. 3d 416, 116 Cal. Rptr. 69 (1974) City of Tulsa v. Mingo School Dist. No.16, 559 P.2d 487 (Old. App. 1977) City of Wichita v. Unified School District No.259, 201 Kan. 110, 439 P.2d 162 (1968) City of Wilsonville v. SCA Services, Inc., 86 Ill. 2d 1, 426 N.E.2d 824, 837 (1981) Commerce Oil & Refining Corp. v. Miner, 281 F.2d 465 (1st Cir. 1960) Commercial National Bank v. City of Chicago, 89 111. 2d 45, 432 N.E.2d 227 (1982) Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Highways v. City of Winchester, 431 S.W.2d 707 (Ky. 1968) County Board of School Trustees of Ogle County v. Elliott, 14 Ill. 2d 440,152 N.E.2d 873 (1958) County of Cook v. City of Chicago, 84 Hi. App. 2d 301, 228 N.E.2d 183 (1967) County of Cook v. Priester, 22 Ill. App. 3d 964 (1st Dist 1974), aff'd, 62 m. 2d 357 (1967) Delcon Group, Inc. v. Northern Trust Corp. 187 Hi. App. 3d 635, 543 N.E.2d 595 (2d Dist 1989) Department of Public Works And Buildings v. Wilson & Co., 62 Ill. 2d 131, 340 N.E.2d 12 (1975) Department of Public Works v. Barton, 371 Ill. 11, 19 N.E.2d 935 (1939) Dept. of Public Works & Buildings v. Divit, 25 Ill. 2d 93, 182 N.E.2d 749 (1962) Dept. of Public Works & Buildings v. Exchange National Bank, 31 Ill. App. 3d 88, 334 N.E.2d 810 (2d Dist. 1975) DiPierri v. FAA, 671 F.2d 54 (1st Cir. 1982) DiSanto v. City of Warrenville, 59 Ill. App. 3d 931, 376 N.E.2d 288 (2d Dist. 1978) Donohue v. Copiague Union Free School District, 47 N.Y.2d 440, 391 N.E.2d 1352 (1979) Drainage District No. 1 in Sand Prairie Township v. Village of Green Valley, 69 Ill. App. 3d 330, 387 N.E.2d 422 (3d Dist. 1979) Drybread v. City of St. Louis, 634 S.W.2d 519 (Mo. Ct. App. 1982) Eldorado, M. & S. W Ry. Co. v. Everett, 225 Ill. 529, 80 N.E. 281 (1907) Elliot v. Board of Education, 64 Ill. App. 3d 229, 380 N.E.2d 1137 (1st Dist. 1978) Fichter v. Milk Wagon Drivers' Union, 382Ill. 91, 46 N.E.2d 921, cert. denied, 319 U.S. 758 (1943) Frustuck v. City of Fairfax, 212 Cal. App. 2d 345, 28 Cal. Rptr. 357 (1st Dist. 1963) Gass v. Metro-East Sanitary District, 186 Ill. App. 3d 1077, 542 N.E.2d 1229 (5th Dist. 1989), cert. denied, 548 N.E.2d 1068 (1990) Global International Airways Corp. v. Port Authority, 727 F.2d 246 (2d Cir.), on rehearing, 731 F.2d 127 (2dCir. 1984) Gord Industrial Plastics, Inc. v. Aubrey 103 Ill. App. 8d 380, 431 N.E.2d 445 (2d Dist. 1982) Greater Westchester Homeowners Association v. City of Los Angeles, 26 Cal. 3d 86, 160 Cal. Rptr. 733, 603 P. 2d 1329 (1979), cert. denied, 449 U.S. 820 (1980) Griggs v. Allegheny County, 369 U.S. 84 (1962) Grove v. Winter) 197 Ill. App. 3d 406, 554 N.E.2d 722 (5th Dist), cert denied, 133 Ill. 2d 556, 561 N.E.2d 691 (1990) Haack v. Lindsay Light & Chemical Co., 393 Ill. 367, 66 N.E.2d 391 (1946) Henthorn v. Oklahoma City, 453 P.2d 1013 (Okla. 1969) Highline School District No.401, King County v. Port of Seattle, 87 Wash. 2d 6, 548 P.2d 1085 (1976) Hoyle v. City of Charlotte, 276 N. C. 292, 172 S.E.2d 1 (1970) Hudlin v. City of East St. Louis, 227 Ill. App. 3d 871, 591 N.E.2d 541, (5th Dist.), cert. denied, 146 Ill. 2d 627, 602 N.E.2d 452 (1992) Illinois Central Railroad v. Trustees of Schools, 212 Ill.406, 72 N.E. 39 (1904) Illinois State Toll Highway Authority v. Heritage Standard Bank & Trust Co., 196 111. App. 3d 5, 552 N.E.2d 1151, (2d Dist. 1990), cert. denied, 138 111. 2d 556 (1990) Illinois State Toll Highway Authority V. Itasca Bank & Trust Co., 216 Ill. App. 3d 926, 576 N.E.2d 1221 (2d Dist. 1991) In re Marriage of Coufal, 156 Ill. App. 3d 814, 510 N.E.2d 25 (1st Dist. 1987) IPEC, Inc. v. International Lithograph mg Corp, 869 F. 2d 1080 (7th Cir. 1989) Jacobs v. Seattle, 100 Wash. 524, 171 P.662 (Wash. 1918) Johnson v. Luhman, 330 Ill. App. 598, 71 N.E.2d 810 (2d Dist. 1947) Johnson v. Tipton, 103 Ill. App. 3d 291,431 N.E.2d 464 (2d Dist. 1982) Jones v. Sanitary District of Chicago, 252 Ill. 591, 97 N.E. 210 (1911) Kane v. City of Chicago, 392 Ill. 172, 64 N.E.2d 506 (1945) King v. Levin, 184 Ill. App. 3d 557, 540 N.E.2d 492 (1st Dist. 1988) Koretz v. All American Life & Cas. Co., 102 Ill. App. 2d 197, 243 N.E.2d 586 (1st Dist. 1968) Krambeck v. City of Gretna, 198 Neb. 608, 254 N.W.2d 691 (1977) Kreutz v. Jacobs, 39 Ill. App. 3d 515, 349 N.E.2d 93 (3d Dist. 1976) Krueger v. Mitchell, 112 Wis. 2d 88, 32 N.W.2d 733 (1983) Langer v. Becker, 176 Ill. App. 3d 745, 531 N.E.2d 830, (1st Dist. 1988), rehearing denied, 125 Ill. 2d 566 (1988) Leckrone v. City ofSalem, 152 Ill. App. 3d 126, 503 N.E.2d 1093, (5th Dist. 1987) Long v. City of Charlotte, 806 N. C. 187, 293 S.E.2d 101 (1982) Love v. Postal Telegraph-Cable Co., 221 N.C. 469, 20 S.E.2d 337 (1942) Lucas v. South Carolina Environmental Coastal Commission, __ U.S. 112 S.Ct. 2886 (1992) Luedtke v. County of Milwaukee, 521 F.2d 387 (7th Cir. 1975) Mannion v. Stallings & Co., 204111. App. 3d 179, 561 N.E.2d 1134 (1st Dist. 1990) Martin v. Port of Seattle, 64 Wash. 2d 309, 391 P.2d 540 (1964); cert. denied, 379 U.S. 989 (1965) Meadowmoor Dairies v. Milk Wagon Drivers' Union 371 Ill.377, 21 N.E.2d 308 (1939) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. v. ABC-Great States, Inc. 8 Ill. App. 3d 836, 291 N.E.2d 200 (1st Dist. 1972) Metropolitan West Side R.R. Co. v. Goll, 100 Ill. App. 323 (1902) MGD, Inc. v. Dalen Trading Co., 230 Ill. App. 3d 916, 596 N.E.2d 15 (1st Dist. 1992) Midway Airlines v. County of Westchester, 584 F. Supp 436 (S.D.N.Y. 1984) Molitor v. Kaneland Community Unit District No.302, 18 Ill. 2d 11, 163 N.E.2d 89(1959) National Aviation v. City of Hayward, 418 F. Supp 417 (N.D.Cal. 1976) New Jersey v. City of New York, 283 U.S. 473, (1931) New York v. United States ___ U.S. ___, 112 S.Ct. 2408 (1992) Northwest Airlines v. Minnesota, 322 U.S. 292 (1944) Oil Belt Ry. Co. v. Lewis, 259 Ill.108, 102 N.E. 228, (1913) Oklahoma City v. Wells, 91 P.2d 1077 (Okla. 1939) Owen v. City of Atlanta, 157 Ga. App. 354, 227 S.E.2d 338 (Ga. App. 1981), aff'd, City of Atlanta v. Owen, 248 Ga. 299, 282 S.E.2d 906 (1981), cert. denied, 456 U.S. 972 (1982) Parker v. City of Los Angeles, 44 Cal. App. 3d 571, 118 Cal. Rptr. 687 (1975) Pasulka v.Koob, 170 111. App. 191, 524 N.E.2d 1227 (3dDist. 1988) Patterson v. Peabody Coal Co., 3 Ill. App. 2d 311, 122 N.E.2d 48 (4th Dist. 1954) People ex. rel. Markgraff v. Rosenfield, 383 Ill.468, 50 N.E.2d 479 (1943) People v. Camargo Community Consolidated School District, 313 Ill.321, 145 N.E. 154 (1924) People v. City of Chicago, 414 Ill.600, 111 N.E.2d 626 (1953) People V. Valentine, 50 Ill. App. 3d 447, 365 N.E.2d 1082 (5th Dist. 1977) Personnel Administrator of Massachusetts V. Feeney, 442 U.S. 256, 99 S.Ct. 2282 (1979) Peter W. v. San Francisco Unified School District, 60 Cal. App. Sd 814, 131 Cal.Rptr. 854 (1st Dist. 1976) Reorganized School District No.2 v. Missouri Pacific Railroad Co., 503 S.W.2d 153 (Mo. App. 1973) Rice v. Santa Fe Elevator Corp., 331 U.S. 218(1947) Rigney v. City of Chicago, 102 Ill. 64 (1882) Ross v. Creighton University, 957 F. 2d 401 (7th Cir. 1992) San Diego Unified Port District v. Gianturco, 651 F. 2d 1306 (9th Cir. 1981), cert. denied, 455 U.S. 1000 (1981) Santa Monica Airport Association v. City of Santa Monica, 659 F. 2d 100 (9th Cir. 1981) Santucci Construction Co. v. Baxter & Woodman, Inc., 151 Ill. App. 3d 547, 502 N.E.2d 1134 (2d Dist. 1987) Schatz v. Abbott Laboratories, Inc., 131 Ill. App. 2d 1091, 269 N.E .2d 308, (2d Dist. 1971) reversed on other grounds, 51 Ill. 2d 143, 281 N.E.2d 323 (1972) Starcevich v.. City of Farmingham, 110 Ill. App. 3d 1074, 443 N.E.2d 737 (3d Dist. 1982), cert. denied Stasica v. Hannon, 70 Ill. App. 3d 785, 388 N.E.2d 1110 (1st Dist. 1979) State of Alaska v. Doyle, 735 P. 2d 733 (Alaska 1987) State of New Jersey v. Board of Education of City of Elizabeth, 116 N.J. Super. 305,282 A.2d 71 (1971) State of Texas v. Waco Independent School District, 364 S.W.2d 263 (Texas Civ. App. 1963) Streeter v. County of Winnebago, 44 Ill. App. 3d 392, 357 N.E.2d 1371, 2 Ill. Dec. 928 (2d Dist. 1976) Swager v. Couri, 77 Ill. 2d 173, 395 N.E.2d 921 (1979) Thornburg v. Port of Portland, 233 Or. 178, 376 P. 2d 100 (1962) Tyska v. Board of Education, 117 Ill. App. 3d 917, 453 N.E.2d 1344 (1st Dist. 1983) United States v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946) United States v. Dickinson, 331 U.S. 745, 67 S.Ct. 1382 (1947) United States v. International Union, United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW-CIO), 352 U.S. 567, 77 S.Ct. 529, (1957) Upper Avenue National Bank of Chicago v. First Arlington National Bank, 81 Ill. App. 3d 208, 400 N.E.2d 1105, (2d Dist. 1980) Urban v. Village of Inverness, 176 Ill. App. 3d 1, 530 N.E.2d 976 (1st Dist. 1988), cert. denied Ursin v. New Orleans Aviation Board, 506 So.2d 947 (La.App., 5th Cir. 1987), reversed on other grounds, 515 So.2d 1087 (La.1987) Village of Arlington Heights v. Regional Transportation Authority, 653 F.2d 1149 (7th Cir. 1981) Village of Bensenville v. City of Chicago, 16 Ill. App. 3d 733, 306 N.E.2d 562 (1st Dist. 1973) Western Airlines, Inc. v. Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 658 F. Supp. 952 (S.D.N.Y. 1986), aff'd, 817 F.2d 222 (2d Cir. 1987) Wheat v. Freeman Coal Mining Corporation, 23 Ill. App. 3d 14, 319 N.E.2d 290 (5th Dist. 1974) Williamson County Regional Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank, 473 U.S. 172, 105 S. Ct. 3108 (1985) Wojdyla v. City of Park Ridge, 148 Ill. 2d 417, 592 N.E.2d 1098 (1992) Zientara v. Long Creek Township, 211 Ill. App. 3d 226, 569 N.E.2d 1299 (4th Dist. 1991)
STATUTES AND REGULATIONS
Ill. Const. Art. 1, s. 15 Ill. Const. Art. X, s. 1 65 ILCS 5/11-102-1 65 ILCS 5/11-102-4 735 ILCS 5/13-101 9 U.S.C. 1305 49 U.S.C. 180 49 U.S.C. 1101 49 U.S.C. 1506 49 U.S.C. 2151-2158 49 U.S.C. 2153 49 U.S.C. 2155 14 CFR Part 150 14 CFR Part 36
LAW REVIEW ARTICLES, TREATISES AND RESTATMENT SECTIONS
40 A.L.R.2d 1177 52 A.L.R.2d 1134 58 Am.Jur.2d (1971), Nuisance s. 230 1 ILP, Accord and Satisfaction s. 2 Bennett, Airport Noise Litigation: Case Law Review, 47 Journal of Air Law And Commerce 449 (1982) Dolley and Carroll, Airport Noise Pollution Damages: The Case for Local Liability, 14 Urban Lawyer 621 (1983) Lewis, A Treatise on the Law of Eminent Domain in the United States, (3d ed. 1909) Marchese, The Dormant Commerce Clause and Airport Noise, A Case For Narrow Judicial Review, 44 Baylor Law Review 645 (1992) McQuillan, Municipal Corporations s. 53.24b (3d Ed.) Nichols, The Law of Eminent Domain, s. 12C.01(4)(d) Schmidt, The Tenth Amendment: A "New" Limitation on the Congressional Commerce Power, 45 Rutgers L. Rev. 417 (1993) Wood on Nuisances (1893) 1 Restatement of Torts 2d s. 8A 40 Restatement of Torts 2d s. 766A 40 Restatement of Torts 2d s. 822 40 Restatement of Torts 2d s. 826
OTHER AUTHORITIES
124 Cong. Rec. 37419 34 FR 18355-18356 (November 18, 1969) 43 FR 28417 (June 29, 1978) Chicago-O'Hare International Airport, Airport Use Agreement and Terminal Facilities Lease (1983) Section 19.01 ILCS Const. Art. 10, s. 1, Constitutional Commentary (1993) Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, 1970 Committee Proposals Sixth Illinois Constitutional Convention, Record of Proceedings (1970)

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